SAGE Journals

User experience evaluation of a 3D virtual reality educational program for illegal drug use prevention among high school students: Applying the decomposed theory of planned behavior

Posted on 2023-05-02 - 16:55

To evaluate user acceptability of an immersive three-dimensional virtual reality program for preventing illegal drug use and identify factors associated with continuous usage intention of three-dimensional virtual reality learning among high school students based on the decomposed theory of planned behavior.


In this cross-sectional observational study, we developed five educational modules and serious games based on three-dimensional virtual reality technology. Ninety student-participants’ experiences were assessed by a structured questionnaire based on the decomposed theory of planned behavior variables. We applied partial least squares structural equation modeling to examine the correlates of continuous usage intention.


The proposed model demonstrated an acceptable fit to the observed data. Eight of the 11 hypotheses based on the decomposed theory of planned behavior were supported. Continuous usage intention was significantly associated with attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control; these variables explained 55.4% of the variance in continuous usage intention. Perceived usefulness and compatibility were significant antecedents of attitude. The significant antecedent of subjective norms was support from school staff. Self-efficacy and resource-facilitating conditions were significant antecedents of perceived behavioral control.


Our findings support the applicability of the decomposed theory of planned behavior as a framework for evaluating a three-dimensional virtual reality program for illegal drug use. We recommend that the program be included as teaching material for illegal drug prevention education in senior high schools.


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