Understanding partial fuel stratification for low temperature gasoline combustion using large eddy simulations
The development of gasoline compression ignition engines operating in a low temperature combustion mode depends heavily on robust control of the heat release profile. Partial fuel stratification is an effective method for controlling the heat release by creating a stratified mixture prior to autoignition, which can be beneficial for operation across a wide load range. In this study, three-dimensional large eddy simulations were used to model a double direct injection strategy for which 80% of the fuel was injected during the intake stroke, and 20% of the fuel was injected at varying timing during the compression stroke. The simulations replicated a set of experiments performed at Sandia National Laboratories on a 1-L single-cylinder research engine using E10 gasoline (gasoline fuel containing 10% vol. ethanol). The objective of this study is to analyze the effects of the double direct injection strategy on the compositional and thermal stratification of the mixture, and understand the best use of this operating strategy. The modeling results indicated that by retarding the start of the second injection, the mixture stratification increases, which can be used to control the autoignition timing and the combustion phasing. Ignition and CA50 (crank angle of 50% mass fraction burned) are dictated by the mass concentration of the richest zones in the combustion chamber, as well as their location. The richer zones have the lowest temperatures before ignition primarily due to evaporative cooling from direct fuel injection. Overall, this study enhances the understanding of partial fuel stratification that can be used for controlling the heat release in gasoline compression ignition engines.