Toward a uniform earthquake loss model across Central America
This study presents a probabilistic earthquake loss model for Central America, which is used to evaluate the indicators of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (SFDRR). The exposure, vulnerability, and hazard components of the model were established using a uniform methodology for all the countries. Earthquake risk is expressed according to three indicators: mortality (A-1), population affected (B-1), and economic losses (C-1). Exposure results indicate that over 9.1 million structures (with an economic value of US$635 billion) are exposed to seismic hazard in the region. The risk results indicate an average annual human loss of 0.7 fatalities per 100,000 inhabitants, an average number of 35 people affected per 100,000 inhabitants, and an average annual economic loss of US$990 million. This represents 0.43% and 0.16% of the regional gross domestic product (GDP) and total replacement value, respectively. Guatemala, Nicaragua, and El Salvador present the highest risk, contributing with 75% of the absolute economic losses and 84% of the average annual fatalities in the region.