Structural and Functional Characteristics of the Microbiome in Deep-Dentin Caries

Published on 2020-03-21T12:10:46Z (GMT) by
<div><p>Dental caries is a cariogenic bacteria-mediated, fermentable carbohydrate-driven dynamic disease. The new ecological hypothesis for dentin caries suggests that an alteration in the microbial community and the presence of specific metabolic pathway genes contribute to the initiation and progression of caries. This study aimed to determine the structural and functional characteristics of a microbial community of human deep-dentin carious lesions. Sixteen deep-dentin carious lesions were obtained from the first permanent molars of 8 patients aged 9 to 18 y. Shotgun metagenomic sequencing was used to measure the microbial composition and abundance at the phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species levels. Functional analysis of the DNA sequencing data set was also performed and compared among different layers of the lesions using DIAMOND software against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database. This study found that in the deep-dentin carious lesions, <i>Actinobacteria</i> (35.8%) and <i>Firmicutes</i> (31.2%) were the most prevalent phyla, followed by <i>Bacteroidetes</i> (13.6%), <i>Proteobacteria</i> (3.6%), and <i>Fusobacteria</i> (2.5%). The microbial composition varied among the individuals, but there were no significant differences in the distribution of the relative microbial abundance between the superficial layers and the deep layers. Although 14.5% of the top 10 taxa were identified as <i>Lactobacillus</i> at the genus level, only 25% of the deep-dentin carious samples showed <i>Lactobacillus</i> as the most abundant genus. Other abundant taxa included <i>Actinomyces</i> (10.5%), <i>Olsenella</i> (9.4%), <i>Prevotella</i> (8.8%), <i>Propionibacterium</i> (7.2%), <i>Streptococcus</i> (3.9%), <i>Selenomonas</i> (3.7%), <i>Corynebacterium</i> (1.9%), <i>Leptotrichia</i> (1.4%), and <i>Parascardovia</i> (1.1%). The most abundant pathway identified in the KEGG database was the metabolic pathway containing 101,427 annotated genes, which consisted of 51.4% of all annotated genes. The carbohydrate metabolism pathway, amino acid metabolism, and membrane transport were the functional traits of the level 2 pathways. These findings suggest that the potent interaction within the microbial communities in deep-dentin carious lesions may play a fundamental role in caries etiology.</p></div>

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Liu, G.; Wu, C.; Abrams, W.R.; Li, Y. (2020): Structural and Functional Characteristics of the Microbiome in Deep-Dentin Caries. SAGE Journals. Collection. https://doi.org/10.25384/SAGE.c.4903530.v1