Safety and efficacy of human papillomavirus vaccination for people living with HIV: A systematic review and meta-analysis
The current evidence regarding the safety and immunogenicity of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccinations for people living with HIV (PLWH) is unclear. We searched PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library and Web of Science databases from inception to 23 November 2018. The pooled proportion, relative risk (RR) and the standardized mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Twenty-four studies consisting of 7507 participants were identified. The pooled proportion of adverse events in HIV-infected vaccinees was 60% and the antibody seroconversion rates in HPV-6, -11, -16, -18 subtypes were all above 90%. When compared with the placebo groups, the risk of adverse events was not different except for the injection site reactions (RR: 2.63, 95% CI: 1.72–4.01, p < 0.001), and the level of CD4 was relatively lower (SMD: −0.17, 95% CI: −0.29 to −0.04, p = 0.01) in the HIV-positive vaccinees groups. When compared with HIV-negative vaccinees, the risk of adverse events was not different, but the pooled RR and SMD indicated that antibody seroconversion and geometric mean titer for HPV-18 in HIV-positive groups was lower (RR: 0.91, 95% CI: 0.87–0.95, p < 0.001; SMD: −0.43, 95% CI: −0.62 to −0.24, p < 0.001). The study proves that HPV vaccine is safe and efficacious for PLWH and has important implications for international guidelines and strategies for HPV vaccination.