Multilevel Factors Associated With Pregnancy-Related Health Behaviors in Indonesia: Evidence From the 2007, 2012, and 2017 Indonesian Demographic Health Surveys
This study attempted to examine individual- and community-level factors that contribute to pregnancy-related health behaviors among Indonesian women. This study used representative nationwide survey samples from the Indonesian Demographic Health Survey in the years 2007 (N = 15 193), 2012 (N = 14 431), and 2017 (N = 14 797). Generalized linear mixed models were constructed in the multivariate analyses. We found that women’s educational level, household wealth index, insurance status, access to health facilities, geographic location, general health condition, and pregnancy intentions were significantly associated with different outcome behaviors. Regarding community-level influences, women who lived in communities with a high proportion of educated women and high household wealth were more likely to have skilled birth attendance during childbirth compared with their counterparts in 2007. The similar pattern of results was also found in 2012 and 2017. The findings of this study suggest that future policies should focus on both individual- and community-level factors to improve women’s pregnancy-related behaviors.