Metastatic Testicular Sex Cord Tumor Harboring a EWSR1::ATF1 Gene
Fusion—A Case Report of a Novel Neoplasm: “Inflammatory and Nested Testicular Sex Cord Tumor”
We present a case report of a 54-year-old male with a metastatic testicular sex cord tumor harboring a EWSR1::ATF1 gene fusion. The tumor displayed a solid and nested architecture with sclerotic stroma and variable inflammatory infiltrate, and was positive for SF-1, inhibin, EMA, CD30, and WT1 expression. Further genetic analysis identified a EWSR1::ATF1 gene fusion. Overall findings were consistent with an “inflammatory and nested testicular sex cord tumor,” a recently described testicular neoplasm characterized by EWSR1::ATF1 gene fusion and aggressive clinical behavior. Due to the aggressive nature of this entity and the limited response to current treatment options available, identification of potential biomarkers for early diagnosis and targeted therapies are critical. This case report provides important insights into the genomic landscape of testicular sex cord-stromal tumors, especially within the CTNNB1-negative subset of patients with an aggressive clinical course, and further supports the distinction of “inflammatory and nested testicular sex cord tumor” as a separate entity from Sertoli cell tumors due to its characteristic morphological, immunohistochemical and molecular, features and clinical behavior.