Local Functional Connectivity as a Parsimonious Explanation of the Main Frameworks for ADHD in Medication-Naïve Adults
Objective: Neuroimaging studies in children with ADHD indicate that their brain exhibits an atypical functional connectivity pattern characterized by increased local connectivity and decreased distant connectivity. We aim to evaluate if the local and distant distribution of functional connectivity is also altered in adult samples with ADHD who have never received medication before. Methods: We compared local and distant functional connectivity between 31 medication-naïve adults with ADHD and 31 healthy controls and tested whether this pattern was associated with symptoms severity scores. Results: ADHD sample showed increased local connectivity in the dACC and the SFG and decreased local connectivity in the PCC. Conclusion: Results parallel those obtained in children samples suggesting a deficient integration within the DMN and segregation between DMN, FPN, and VAN. These results are consistent with the three main frameworks that explain ADHD: the neurodevelopmental delay hypothesis, the DMN interference hypothesis, and multi-network models.