SAGE Journals

Factor Analysis of the Einstein Neonatal Neurobehavioral Assessment Scale in Infants with Congenital Heart Disease and Healthy Controls

Posted on 2022-08-05 - 12:13

Background: Administration of the Einstein Neonatal Neurobehavioral Assessment Scale (ENNAS) can be time-consuming, and items can be highly correlated. We aimed to determine: (1) its factor analytic structure; (2) the validity of the factor structure; and (3) the associations of physiologic measures with factor scores. Methods: A factor analysis reduced 21 ENNAS items into 5 factors in 57 congenital heart disease (CHD) and 35 healthy infants. Multiple linear regressions examined the association of factor scores with group, gestational age, and physiologic variables. Results: 5-factor solution: 1 (Orienting Reflex), 2 (Extensor Axial Tone), 3 (Primitive Reflexes), 4 (Flexor Tone), 5 (Reflexive Tone Around Extremity Joints). Moderate to strong evidence supported: face, discriminant, and construct validity of these factors, with Factor 2 having the strongest. Conclusions: Components of Factor 2 may provide similar information about neonatal development, thus reducing the time for and burden of administration for researchers and clinicians.


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Journal of Child Neurology


Nhu N. Tran
Jay Desai
Jodie K. Votava-Smith
Mary-Lynn Brecht
Douglas L. Vanderbilt
Ashok Panigrahy
Liza Mackintosh
Kenneth M. Brady
Bradley S. Peterson
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