Estimation of COVID-19 waste generation and composition in Vietnam for pandemic management
Despite its initial success in COVID-19 pandemic control, Vietnam faces a growing risk of outbreaks as new infection waves driven by the highly contagious Delta variant surge in the region. In the context of preparedness through waste management, this study estimated the rate and quantity of generation and the composition of COVID-19 waste in Vietnam from the supply of resources and equipment. Over a year under COVID, 1486 t of COVID-19 waste was produced from the treatment of isolated COVID-19 patients (4.64 kg bed−1 day−1), quarantine in medical facilities (3.86 kg bed−1 day−1), centralised quarantine (46.43 g bed−1 day−1), testing (50 g test−1) and vaccination (10.46 g shot−1). Plastic dominated the waste at 76.7%, followed by paper. The additional management of waste from households with persons under quarantine is likely to reduce infection caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) – contaminated waste. Thorough assessment is recommended for the establishment of regional collaboration to secure COVID-19 waste treatment capacity. These findings will support COVID-19 waste planning in Vietnam in association with pandemic scenarios and could be used as a reference by other developing countries for pandemic control.