Development and Initial Validation of the Children’s Hardiness Scale
Several measures have been developed in the past decades to assess the dimensions of hardiness in adult populations, whereas the same for children has remained relatively understudied. The present research has sought to develop and validate children’s hardiness scale (CHS) to assess hardiness attitudes in the respondents with age categories ranging between 10 and 12. Relying on a mixed-method approach, the research has been conducted in two studies. In the first, using both deductive and inductive methods, items were generated. The Content and face validity of the items was explored. To determine factor structure afterward, the exploratory factor analysis was conducted. In the course of the second study, confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the scale’s dimensionality and factor structure. The significant correlation between CHS, academic hardiness, and perceived stress, demonstrated the construct validity of the scale. Using the convenience sampling method, a total sample of 641 children participated in both studies. The results demonstrated that the final scale in line with the hardiness theory comprised three subscales: “commitment”, “control”, and “challenge”. The scale revealed acceptable internal consistency, reliability, and construct validity. Overall, the results of the current research indicated that a 20-item CHS can be applied in evaluating children’s hardiness attitudes. Further studies are required, however, to assess the applicability of the scale in different cultural populations.