SAGE Journals

Cognitively Challenging Agility Boot Camp Program for Freezing of Gait in Parkinson Disease

Version 2 2020-08-03, 14:06
Version 1 2020-04-05, 12:07
Posted on 2020-08-03 - 14:06

Introduction. It is well documented that freezing of gait (FoG) episodes occur in situations that are mentally challenging, such as dual tasks, consistent with less automatic control of gait in people with Parkinson disease (PD) and FoG. However, most physical rehabilitation does not include such challenges. The purpose was to determine (1) feasibility of a cognitively challenging Agility Boot Camp–Cognitive (ABC-C) program and (2) effects of this intervention on FoG, dual-task cost, balance, executive function, and functional connectivity. Methods. A total of 46 people with PD and FoG enrolled in this randomized crossover trial. Each participant had 6 weeks of ABC-C and Education interventions. Outcome measures were the following: FoG, perceived and objective measures; dual-task cost on gait; balance; executive function; and right supplementary motor area (SMA)–pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) functional connectivity. Effect sizes were calculated. Results. ABC-C had high compliance (90%), with a 24% dropout rate. Improvements after exercise, revealed by moderate and large effect sizes, were observed for subject perception of FoG after exercise, dual-task cost on gait speed, balance, cognition (Scales for Outcomes in Parkinson’s disease–Cognition), and SMA-PPN connectivity. Conclusions. The ABC-C for people with PD and FoG is a feasible exercise program that has potential to improve FoG, balance, dual-task cost, executive function, and brain connectivity. The study provided effect sizes to help design future studies with more participants and longer duration to fully determine the potential to improve FoG.


3 Biotech
3D Printing in Medicine
3D Research
3D-Printed Materials and Systems
AAPG Bulletin
AAPS PharmSciTech
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universität Hamburg
ABI Technik (German)
Academic Medicine
Academic Pediatrics
Academic Psychiatry
Academic Questions
Academy of Management Discoveries
Academy of Management Journal
Academy of Management Learning and Education
Academy of Management Perspectives
Academy of Management Proceedings
Academy of Management Review
Select your citation style and then place your mouse over the citation text to select it.



Usage metrics

Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair


Laurie A. King
Martina Mancini
Katrijn Smulders
Graham Harker
Jodi A. Lapidus
Katrina Ramsey
Patricia Carlson-Kuhta
Brett W. Fling
John G. Nutt
Daniel S. Peterson
Fay B. Horak
need help?