Characterizing cerebrospinal fluid mobility using heavily T2-weighted 3D fast spin echo (FSE) imaging with improved multi-directional diffusion-sensitized driven-equilibrium (iMDDSDE) preparation
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow patterns and their relationship with arterial pulsation can depict the function of glymphatic system (GS). We propose an improved multi-directional diffusion-sensitized driven-equilibrium (iMDDSDE) prepared heavily T2-weighted 3D FSE (iMDDSDE-HT2) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method to noninvasively assess the mobility (MO) of CSF distributed in the ventricles and perivascular spaces (PVS). This method could obtain 3D high resolution (1 mm isotropic) imaging of CSF MO with full brain coverage within five min and distinguish the CSF MO across different pulse phases using a peripheral pulse unit (PPU). The MO curves had the largest amplitude value in the PVS of middle cerebral artery (11.11 × 10−9 m2/s) and the largest amplitude growth rate in the posterior cerebral artery (189%). The average coefficient of variations (CVs) in non-pulse trigger and pulse phase 1 and 3 were 0.11, 0.10 and 0.09 respectively. The MO in older healthy participants was lower compared to the young participants, and the MO in cerebral major artery stenosis patients with acute ischemia stroke (AIS) were lower compared to those without AIS in several ventriclar ROIs (P < 0.05). This sequence is a clinically feasible method to effectively evaluate CSF flow patterns in human brain.