SAGE Journals

A Survey on Alveolar Bone Grafting in Indian Cleft Centers

Posted on 2023-09-17 - 12:07

To assess the factors influencing the type and timing of Alveolar Bone Grafting (ABG) among cleft centers throughout India. To examine the decision-making criteria for orthodontic treatment and the timing of ABG.


Cross sectional survey


This survey was based on a convenience-based sample selected from cleft teams across India. The survey was formulated using the SurveyMonkey platform and emailed to 40 cleft teams. The survey included questions on demographics, timing, surgical protocol, orthodontic protocol, radiograph prescription rate, assessment methods for the success of ABG and three scenarios for evaluating the timing of the bone graft. The Chi-squared test was performed to evaluate the difference in opinion between specialists. The inter-examiner reliability was assessed using Kappa statistics.


Thirty-five units completed the questionnaire. Most units operate with 1-2 surgeons, with 42.9% of them treating cleft patients for under 5 years. Only 11.4% of centres routinely advised oblique occlusal radiographs for post-surgery evaluation, and 31.4% prescribed CBCT. However, 40% of cleft teams did not perform audits to evaluate the success of ABG, and less than 50% advised radiographs six months post-surgery. Around 26% of centres do not routinely provide orthodontic treatment pre-ABG. The inter-examiner reliability for case scenarios showed poor agreement between the clinicians.


The survey showed a serious lack of consensus in the ABG treatment among cleft teams in India and emphasises the need for standardised protocols for the treatment of children with cleft palate. There is an urgent need to develop core outcome set in cleft.


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The Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal


Badri Thiruvenkatachari
Manoj Prathap
Preeti Jauhar
Panchali Batra
Preetham Shetty
Pramod Subash


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